Jean-Paul Akayesu (born ) is a former teacher, school inspector, and Republican . External links[edit]. ICTR case documents for Jean Paul Akayesu. Warning: This case deals with topics that are especially grave and may cause trauma invoked by memories of past abuse. If you have. The case arose out of the massacres of perhaps a million Tutsi in Rwanda in Akayesu was mayor.2 A trial chamber of the International Criminal Tribunal for.

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It has already been proved beyond reasonable doubt that there was an armed conflict not of an international character between the Government of Rwanda and the RPF in at the time of the events alleged in the Indictment. Thus, it would not be necessary for the Chamber to determine the precise nature of the conflict, this having already been pre-determined by the Security Council. For the first four of these, there is mention only of Common Article 3 as the subject matter jurisdiction of the particular alleged offences, whereas count 15 makes an additional reference to Additional Protocol II.

These violations shall include, but shall not be limited to: The female displaced civilians lived in constant fear and their physical and psychological health deteriorated as a result of the sexual violence and beatings and killings. The militia killed them with clubs, machetes, small axes and sticks. Akayesu first appeared in court on 30 May On 2 SeptemberJean Paul Akayesu was sentenced to life imprisonment for each of the nine counts, the sentences to run concurrently. Do you think that the Appeals Chamber was right to decide that the Trial Chamber had committed an error?

That the Party in revolt against the de jure Government possesses an organized military force, an authority responsible for its acts, acting within a determinate territory and having the means of respecting and ensuring the respect for the Convention.


ICTR, The Prosecutor v. Jean-Paul Akayesu | How does law protect in war? – Online casebook

Under ground 1, the Accused submitted that he had been denied the right to be defended by counsel of his own choice and to defend himself in person para. A comparison of Akayesu and Muhimana. Jean-Paul Akayesu was the bourgmestre akaayesu of Taba Commune — 11 miles from Kigali — when the genocide in Rwanda began to unfold. The Tribunal unanimously found the defendant guilty of genocide, direct and public incitement to commit genocide, and the crimes against humanity of extermination, murder, torture, rape, and other inhumane acts.

The victims referred to in this indictment were, at all relevant times, persons not taking an active part in the hostilities. Regarding the Prosecution’s fourth ground of appeal, the Chamber found that “incitement” under Article 6 1 of the Statute need not be “direct and public” para. This will be dealt with in section 7 of the judgment.

Oxford Public International Law: Akayesu Case

The ICTR recognised that rape and sexual violence can amount to genocide when they are committed with the intention of destroying or partly destroying a particular group.

The Trial Chamber held that rape, which it defined as “a physical invasion of a sexual nature akayesk on a person under circumstances which are coercive”, and sexual assault constitute acts of genocide insofar as they were committed with the intent to destroy, in akqyesu or in part, a targeted group, as such.

It included 15 charges for genocide, crimes against humanity, and violations of Article 3 common to the Geneva Conventions and Additional Protocol 2.

Akayesu appealed against his convictions and the sentence imposed on him. Skip to main content. During the Rwandan genocide of mid, many Tutsis were killed in Akayesu’s commune, and many others were subject to violence and other forms of hatred. The indictment was confirmed on February 16 of the same year. The tribunal considered that sexual violence, including aayesu, need not necessarily manifest itself through a demonstration of physical force.

Article 2 of the Statute, just like the Genocide Convention, stipulates four types of victim groups, namely national, ethnical, caze or religious groups.


The Court found that the crimes Without these actions, the rape and other inhumane acts committed would not have happened. It is estimated that people were killed in the massacres against the Tutsi in the community of Taba alone.

He stood trial for 15 counts of genocidecrimes against humanityincluding rape during the Rwandan genocide and violations of the Geneva Convention. The Chamber considers that it is possible to deduce the genocidal intent inherent in a particular act charged from the general context of the perpetration of other culpable acts systematically directed against that same group, whether these acts were committed by the same offender or by others.

Pages within this section: Retrieved from ” https: By continuing to browse the site, you agree to our use of cookies. This degree of organization should be such so as to enable the akayesj group or dissident forces to plan and carry out concerted military operations, and to impose discipline in the name of a de facto authority.

ICTR, The Prosecutor v. Jean-Paul Akayesu

The victim of the act is therefore a member of a group, chosen as such, which, hence, means that the victim of the crime of genocide is the group itself and akayezu only the individual. In Rwanda, the bourgmestre is the highest authority in a commune. All of the guarantees, as enumerated akwyesu Article 4 reaffirm and supplement Common Article 3 and, as discussed above, Common Article 3 being customary in nature, the Chamber is of the opinion that these guarantees did also at the time of the events alleged in the Indictment form part of existing international customary law.